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Fiftyniners' Directory
Colorado Argonauts


ABBEE, or ABBIE, G. S. (also given as G. H.), was elected Constable, Mar 1859, Arapahoe County, Kansas, at mouth of Cherry Creek. (RMN)

ABBEY (also spelled ABBIE), George, held and improved Denver lots on corner of McGaa and D. Streets. These were later, in Jul 1859, to John P. Slough of Leavenworth sold by Martin Field of same place. (Denver and Auraria Land Records, Liber A, old) Donation Lots were also given to George Abbey subject to building.

ABBOTT, F., name appears in list of members of McLeod & Company. (Organized for lumbering business at the Forks of Plum Creek, Oct 1859.) His claim was No. 27. (See under name of this Company.)

ABLES, Joseph, his signature appears (in Liber A, Golden) as witness in land transaction Jan 7, 1860. Probably belongs to Fiftyniners.

ABRIEU (also spelled ALREN, ABRIEN, ALREAN), Jesus, of Denver City, is entitled to eight lots, four select, and four draw lots. The select lots are the two lots where his house stands on McGaa Street, and two on Arapahoe Street adjoining lots of D. Bliss on May 12, 1859. Other land transactions gives name of Jesus G., probably the same, dates Jul 5. Larimer in his Reminiscences says: “Jesus Arrego was a Mexican, and very much a gentleman; had store on McGaa and H. or F. Street.”

ACKLEY, Mr., a musician, playing in Golden at the Christmas Ball in Loveland’s new Hall, 1859, mentioned In Western Mountaineer (old files) (possibly I found this name in RMN). Note: There was an L. N. ACKLEY postmaster in 1899 at Red Cliff, said to be a pioneer of May 28, 1859.

ADAMS & COMPANY, mining, Russell’s Gulch, spring 1859. (RMN)

ADAMS, Daniel, of Auraria, grantor, lot 11, block 31 Auraria, Sep 28, 1859. (Liber D, p. 202, old)

ADAMS, J. N., is witness to deed in Auraria Dec 3, 1859, and on same paper is signature of W. A. Adams (see this name.)

ADAMS, N.A., arrived at mouth of Cherry Creek with M. W. Scott and 55 others, from New York, by Smoky Hill Route, Jun 4, 1859. (RMN)

ADAMS, Samuel, Esq., Attorney at Law, Auraria and Denver, (card in RMN) Jul 1859, also delegate or candidate for delegate to Congress summer of same, and mentioned as late of Des Moines, Iowa, also as the inventor of an amalgamator. Samuel Adams from Leavenworth, a miner, is mentioned as another visiting the diggings and placers. (There may be two of this name.)

ADAMS, W. A., witness with J. N. Adams to deed between Auraria Town Company and George W. Hightower, Dec 3. In a Directory of 1859 (Mss. copy of pamphlet, W. A. Adams is listed as a gunsmith with place of business of Cherry Street, Auraria Town. William A. Adams may be same (?) buys four lots of Auraria Town Company, Dec 3. This name is in list of old members of Auraria Lodge of 1859, and he is described as of Lodge No. 1 (Bodley Lodge) of Quincy, Illinois, and is a founding member of Auraria Lodge (Masonic)

ADAMS, W. H., arrives with four others from Tipton, Missouri, floating the Stars and Stripes from their wagon. They had a very fine team, and left for the mountains the next day. “Mr. Adams was for a long time one of the most efficient employes of the Pacific Railroad.” (RMN, Apr 29, 1859) Later in the year W. H. Adams’ name appears among the grantees of lots from Auraria Town Company, on Dec 3. (Four lots in blocks 230, 137, 184, 100.)

ADKINS (see also ATKINS) Charles B., name in list of arrivals in Denver Nov 15, 1858.

ADRIANCE, Rev. Jacob, Methodist Minister, residence Auraria in Jun 1859, mentioned in Directory of that year. In December he performed marriage ceremony for Michael Pott and Mary Jane Tittle in Golden City, and early in 1860 started a church there. He preached there in the Protestant Episcopal Church Feb 6, 1860. The following obituary of him appears in RMN near the time of his decease: “Rev. Jacob Adriance, born Aurelius, New York, arrived Denver June and was one of the earliest ministers. He preached to large crowds under the cottonwoods of Auraria, and through the gold camps of the mountains. He was Chaplain of the first Legislature of Jefferson Territory (in 1859). He died at Fremont, Nebraska, Dec 18, 1923.” A portrait of him is on page 717, Smiley’s History of Denver.

AICHELMAN, Frank, arrived with George C. Griffin, Thomas Donaldson, Andrew Hagus, and George W. Hazzard. (RMN in obituary of Mrs. George C. Griffin, during 1924).

AIKENS, James, of Boulder County, 1858. One of the discoverers of Gold Hill. James Aikens, may be the same, was member of the Golden City Town Company, 1859.

J. B. Aikins was notary public in Denver, Nov 1859.

AIKENS. Samuel J., 1858 in October was in Boulder. The History of Boulder County gives record of him: Born Bloomington, Illinois, Dec 16, 1835, moved with parents to Ogle County, Illinois, to Atchison County, Missouri, in 1856, and in autumn of 1858 to the gold regions of Colorado. He was a prospector in the hills. He returned to Missouri and brought out the family, locating at Boulder. He followed placer mining, then located claim of 160 acres on Boulder Creek two and a half miles east of Boulder City. In 1868 bought a ranche of 160 acres on Dry Creek five miles east of Boulder City. Married in 1856 Miss Mary A. Burns.

AIKENS, Captain Thomas, arrived Boulder Valley Oct 17, 1858, accompanied by his son and a nephew. Captain Thomas A. Aikens (probably the same) was a pioneer of 1858 in Boulder City. Born Maryland, Aug 8, 1808, died on his farm of Boulder Creek 1878. He was reared on a farm, moved first to Franklin County, Ohio, then Ogle County, Illinois, to Atchison County, Missouri later, then to the gold diggings. He married, 1833, Miss Margaret S. Ross - five children. L. L. Aikens, born Illinois, Feb 18, 1840, Thurston W. Aikens, born Missouri, Feb 18, 1856. The other children are not given in Vickers’ History.

AINSLIE & COMPANY, Express to Gregory Diggings. (RMN 1859)

AINSLIE, M. O., mentioned in RMN as their agent in Mountain City. He was representative to the Assembly from the Fourth District in this year.

AIR, William, member of mining company of Walker & Etc., at Mountain City, Gregory District, whose claim for 500 feet northwest side of the hill above (Gregory) Dry Gulch is recorded on p. 47, Gregory Record. His partners were W. S. Walker, F. R. Ford, J. S. Reams, and Ran. Carroll. (Members of Newport Tunnelling Company, Oct 3, 1859.)

AKIN (see also AIKENS) D. and J. Akin, arrived May 22, 1859, in wagon 7 of E. Doty’s Lightning Express Train of 10 wagons, with J. B. Vandyke and others. (RMN)

ALBERTSON, Nathaniel, of Kendall Gulch, helped lay out Central City, 1859.

ALDEN, J. H., member of Red Wind Lodge No. 8 of Red Wing, Minnesota, was in 1859 a founding member of Auraria Lodge U. D. (From a list of Masons of Auraria Lodge, published in 1909 by Denver Lodge No. 5, on occasion of their semi-Centennial.)

ALDRICH, C. H., pioneer of 1859 living in Wet Mountain Valley in 1899. Was wealthy ranchman.

ALDRIDGE, J., miner at Tarryall Diggings, mentioned in RMN 1859.

ALDRIDGE, T., mentioned as having left present of venison ham at office of RMN on Aug 6 (Denver).

ALEXANDER, Thomas, his obituary occurs in RMN Jun 1859. He died at Jim’s Spring, near Pike’s Peak, a few days before Jun 18, of bilious remittent fever. He belonged to Dr. Willard’s train. He was lately of Montgomery County, Missouri.

ALEY, J., his arrival from Iowa mentioned in list in RMN (spring) same. He came with D. D. Taylor’s company, May 17, 30 days from St. Joseph. (RMN)

James A. Aley, grantee, Hugh Emerson grantor, Auraria lot 5, block 11, Nov 15, 1859. (This may be same?) (Arapahoe County Land Records, old)

ALFORD, N. C., 1859 pioneer, member of the Society and name in list of 1920 as living in Ft. Collins. Very prominent man. (Arrived Jun 15). (See Portrait & Biography Index for record of his activities.)

ALGER, William, miner in Clear Creek and Boulder Counties, 1859. He discovered the Alger mine Gilpin County. (Bancroft, Vol. 25, p. 379)

ALLEN & COMPANY, mining, Pleasant Valley, six men, spring, 1859. (RMN )

ALLEN & MANLOVE, mining, Russell’s Gulch, work two men. (list in RMN during summer of 1859 of mining companies etc. in mountains.)

Smith and Allen is another firm mentioned as at Russells.

ALLEN, A., and four others, arrived mouth Cherry Creek by Smoky Hill Route, Jun 3, 1859, from Randolph, Illinois. (RMN)

ALLEN, A. M., was witness Jun 8 of year, Denver City, to deed between Parkinson & Fisher, and was witness again in November. A. M. Allen & Company are mentioned in Mss. Directory of 1859 as grocers, on Ferry Street, Auraria. Andrew M. Allen received certification of his Denver lots Jun 19. (Liber B, p. 101) “Andy” Allen was a pioneer who ran up later the first (old) confederate flag. (RMN)

ALLEN, E. A., name in Arapahoe County Land Records 1859, Donation Lots. (“With intention to build.”)

ALLEN, George B., in Hall’s list of pioneers he is recorded as “Arrived Sep 1858. Born New York, May 17, 1825.” Lived Golden City (1890). He laid out town of Arapahoe in 1858, but left it in 1860 for the mountains. He was a member of the first Constitutional Convention for the Territory of Jefferson, a delegate from Auraria and Arapahoe. He washed gold near Arvada, in Clear Creek.


ALLEN, Henry (Col. Henry Allen), arrived with party from Council Bluffs, Iowa, at mouth of Cherry Creek, Oct 26, 1858. He was one of the original stockholders of Auraria City in this year. It is said that George Jackson took him into confidence about his great discovery of gold, and delivered to him his first gold dust at the mouth of Cherry Creek. J. D. Ramage, an Argonaut of 1858, writing in regard to the origin of Freemasonry in Colorado, (1909) published by Denver Lodge No. 5, states that in Allen’s cabin on Nov 3, 1858, occurred the first informal meeting of Masons in the gold regions. According to his recollection, those present were J. D. Ramage, Henry Allen, William M. Slaughter, Charles Blake, Dr. Russell, Andrew Sagendorf and George Lehow.

Henry Allen was later Worshipful Master of Auraria Lodge U. D. of Kansas Territory being appointed by Richard R. Rees, Grand Master of A.F. & A.M. of Kansas Territory. The first Lodge, Aug 15, room was on Cherry Street between 2nd and 3rd until the elegant new store building of Buddee and Jacobs was finished about the autumn of 1859 when the brethren went into the upper story and continued there until their Lodge was united with Denver Lodge, when they moved to the other side of the creek. (See front Vol. 2.)

Allen was the first regularly constituted postmaster in the Pike’s Peak region. The office in Auraria was at corner of 4th and Ferry Streets, opposite the new Masonic Hall. It is said that Allen had been postmaster in Council Bluffs before coming to the gold region. On Jul 8, 1859, the RMN publishes a notice from him that “Three cents postage will carry a letter to the States.”

He did some prospecting, for the RMN reports in May that he, “The Honorable Henry Allen,” is goldhunting in the mountains at the headquarters of Vasquez Creek. Earlier than this date, on Apr 7 or 14, he presided over a meeting of citizens, which he had called together in Auraria to consider the advisability of forming a new State. The RMN was not yet born, but it published a short account of the meeting in No. 1 of Vol. 1, later. D. D. Cook, L. D. Russell, Thomas Pollock and W. D. McLain, who was Secretary, were mentioned as delegates.

Allen was a delegate from Auraria to the first Constitutional Convention to form the State of Jefferson and this document was published in August, and it is a fine document as may be seen. Allen was later President of the first Territorial Council of the Territory of Jefferson, and his name appears signed to its published laws in Dec 1859. In the business world Henry Allen was President of the Minnehaha Town and Marble Company, incorporated in Nov 1859. He bought many Denver and, especially, Auraria lots, among them lot 2, block 65, (Auraria, Dec 5) lot 5, block 2, same, lot 1, block 64, and 40 or 50 more in different parts of Auraria.

His wife and two grown daughters arrived in July, same year, and on Aug 6 the RMN records that the Misses Kate and Lydia, daughters of Henry Allen, had visited the office to bring for the editors a very delicious iced sponge cake. The marriage later of Miss Lydia to John B. Atkins of Auraria was one of the earliest, if not the first one, ever recorded in the RMN Oct 16, 1859.

In a speech delivered by William N. Byers, Jan 7, 1899, he states that Allen died in California in 1865.

Thus passes one of the grandest of the Argonauts of 1858.

ALLEN, Mrs. Henry Allen, pioneer of Jul 1859. (See Henry Allen above)

ALLEN, H. M., grantee, Denver City Town Company grantor, Aug 23, 1859, lots in Denver City. (Index)

ALLEN, J. F., name appears as witness in Land Records of Sep 29, 1959 in Gregory Diggings. (Gregory Record, p. 36 – mining claims.)

ALLEN, J. S., was mentioned in RMN as Territorial Representative elect from 5th District, 1859.

ALLEN, Josiah, grantee, (is of Arapahoe County) J. H. Binckley grantor, lot 4, block 50, Auraria City. (Index) Nov 1859. Another transaction in November mentions lot d, block 50, lot 11, block 34, and lot 4, block 183, all in Auraria.

ALLEN, Kate (Miss) grown daughter of Col. Henry Allen of Auraria, arrived with mother (and sister, later Mrs. Lydia B. Atkins) Jul 1859 (see under Henry Allen)

ALLEN, L. J., of Auraria or Denver, mentioned in RMN as a merchant handling gold dust. (List) Dec 5 he buys Auraria and farm lands.

ALLEN, Miss Lydia B., pioneer of 1859, sister of Kate, above. She married Oct 16 John B. Atkins of Auraria. The marriage notice was the first ever published in the Territory of Jefferson. (See under Atkins.) Certificate by Rev. George W. Fisher.

ALLEN, Robert E., buys shares in Denver Town Company, in this year. (In December)

ALLEN, S. F., witness in sale of mining claims, Gregory Diggings, Oct 3, 1859. (Could this be L. F.?) Gregory Record, p. 39.

ALLEN, SLAUGHTER & COMPANY, grantees Aug 29, 1859 from Charles Cavanagh, his claim on Vasquez Creek. Consideration $400. Firm composed of Henry Allen and William M. Slaughter, both of Auraria. (Cavanagh is of Arapahoe County)

ALLEN, William, partner of Z. M. Allen, claim McGinnis Lode, Gregory Diggings. (Gregory Record, Oct 1, 1859.)

William Allen (may be another one) on Jan 19, 1860 files for record (Liber 1, Golden) as follows: “Know all men - - that William Allen has located a claim on Ralston Creek lying immediately between a claim located and recorded by J. C. Wall, and one located and recorded by William H. Allen, containing 160 acres. Located sometime last summer.”

ALLEN, William H., arrived at mouth of Cherry Creek Apr 14, 1859 in Capt. William Valentine’s party of six wagons. From La Salle, Illinois, 23 days out from St. Joseph.

(The above note is from the Cherry Creek Pioneer, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 23, 1859, the only copy ever published, yet I secured names and arrivals of eighteen pioneers out of this tiny number.)

(Well worth publishing wasn’t it?--------------)

Wm. H., above, files claim for 160 acres for farming, ranching, and other purposes, Jefferson County, Jefferson Territory “Commencing at a stake about 40 rods from the bank of Ralston’s Creek, east about 80 rods, said tree has a small tree attached at its root. Located some time last summer.” William H. Allen files for record Jan 19, 1860. (See under William Allen above, a similar claim) (Liber A, Golden)

ALLEN, William L., farmer, also stock grower, arrived 1859, was in list of 100 days men for Battle of Sand Creek later.

ALLEN, Z. M. & COMPANY, grantors, mining claim on McGinnis Lode, Gregory Diggings. Recorded at Mountain City, Oct 1, 1859. (Gregory Record, p. 23)

ALLISON, A. J., delegate to the first Constitutional Convention from Jefferson Precinct, and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Provisional Government of 1859. His obituary appears in the RMN of Aug 29, 1860 as follows: “At Cottonwood Springs has died Judge A. J. Allison, late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of this Territory. Mr. Allison was returning to the States to see his friends and was expected to return after the Presidential Campaign. He was formerly from Indiana, but latterly from eastern Kansas, where his father now resides. The Judge was well thought of here by all classes, and as an impartial officer, and a good citizen and gentleman he did honor to his office here while he chose to hold it.”

ALLISON, T., of Adair County, Missouri arrived Denver City via Platte Route, May 10, 1859. (List of arrivals in RMN)

ALMY, Thomas J., arrived May 28, 1859, and in 1890 was living in Salt Lake City. Born Rhode Island Apr 7, 1836. (Name in list of Colorado Pioneers published in booklet about 1890, Denver.) Thomas G. Almy, probably the same, owns in Aug 1859 about 33 Denver lots. Another lot owner appears as Y. T. Almy, may be error in copying. Almy and Rogers in October appear as dealers in Denver lots. Almy & Fisher, or Fisher, Almy & Rogers appear in another place in records. May be one.

ALTAR, firm of Kernahan & Altar, mining in Russell’s Gulch in this year, mentioned in files of RMN.

ALVERSON, and a son, came to the gold region with Corbit Bacon and party, and went to Gilpin County in 1858.

**The first AMBROTYPE GALLERY in Denver was opened by G. Wakely from Chicago, opposite Apollo Hall, Denver City, Nov 1859. His advertisements appear frequently in papers of this year.

AMERICAN GULCH was in this year spoken of as near Galena Gulch.

AMES & COMPANY, mining, Pleasant Valley, working four men in summer and fall.

AMES, N. O., of Lurain County, Ohio, arrived in Capt. A. Hess’ pioneer train May 5, 1859, by Smoky Hill Route. 63 days on road, 12 days without wood, and 150 miles without water. Ames on Jul 27 describes himself as of Arapahoe County in a deed recording land. He buys of A. J. Williams two lots and building on Blake Street, Denver City for $1200, the building “now occupied as a bowling alley.”

AMOS Gulch (or AMES Gulch?) was a mining camp of this year.

ANDERSON, A., from Leavenworth, arrived May 28, 1859 by Express Route, with 18 other men. (RMN list)

ANDERSON, Garret A., of St Croix Lodge A.F. & A.M. (No. 56) of Wisconsin was a founding member of Auraria Lodge in 1859, his name appearing in an old list of members of that lodge.

ANDERSON, George W., his name appears in a pioneer list as of 1859. Arrived Jul 1.

ANDERSON, J. W., of Golden City, was a candidate for Associate Justice in the Provisional Government of 1859, Jefferson County.

ANDERSON, James, his name in Arapahoe County Land Records as filing claim for land for ranch purposes Jun 10, 1859. (Liber C, p. 229)

ANDERSON, John C., arrived May 28, 1859. Was a very prominent merchant, a leading character, married a Miss Scudder, and lived in a pretty one and a half story red brick house on the northwest corner of E. and Lawrence (14th and Lawrence.) He was later Colonel of the First Colorado Regiment and his wife (Eliza G.) was daughter of Hon. E. Scudder at whose residence they were married Sep 21, 1862. (RMN)

ANDERSON, Thomas G., born Clark County, Illinois, (another authority says Ohio?) on Aug 28, 1832. In his first appearance in the RMN, he comes to the office to bring and show a gold nugget from his claim near Russell’s Gulch, and is described as recently of Darwin, Clinton County, Illinois. In the pioneer list of Denver 1890 he is said to have arrived Jun 9, 1859, and this is probably correct. On p. 226, old Liber A, Arapahoe County Land Records, he first appears as grantee from Charles Nichols, lots 1-2, block 49 consideration $40 dated Sep 13, 1859. He always lived in Auraria, and built fine residence on Eleventh Street later on. A picture of his earliest home is in this work (see index of residences). He owned property near the Colfax Bridge across Cherry Creek, and sunk a well there and struck artesian water on Aug 14, 1883.

He and Joseph P. Farmer and Benjamin D. Spencer established the “Daily Democrat” in Denver in 1876, which was later bought by others and converted into the “Denver Republican.” (Hall’s Colorado History, Vol. 4, p. 149) Benjamin F. Zalinger worked as city editor of the Daily Democrat, but it was sold in 1879.

ANDERSON, William, was of the original Russell party from Lumpkin County, Georgia. Arrived it is said in 1857, but not certain to be a resident in 1859, though he may have been so.

ANDRE, F. L., arrived 1859 from Scioto County, Ohio (arrived Jun 15). Member Colorado Pioneers’ Association. In 1899 lived at 3138 Humboldt Street, Denver. He was born Aug 2, 1835. He was in 1859 a partner of Edgerton & Company, and sells claims on Gold Hill. Describes himself as a resident of Mountain City, Sep 26 of this year. (Gregory Record, p. 35) In October he locates ranche claim Jefferson County, on north side of Bear Creek. The land “runs from my cabin north” etc. 160 acres located and cabin built in Oct 1859 filed for record Feb 16, 1860. (Liber A, p.19) (Frank L. Andre)

ANDREWS, DUEGAN & COMPANY, mining, in Illinois Gulch during summer of 1859.

ANTHONY, J. S., member Kilpatrick & Company, operating claims in Gregory Diggings, Jun 20, 1859. (Gregory Record, p. 19)

ANTHONY, J. W., arrived 1859, member Colorado Pioneer Society 1859, resident of Buena Vista 1898.

ANTHONY, Jeff., was a witness in Denver Jan 27, 1860, (may be a pioneer of 1859?)

ANTHONY, John, member of “Kansas Company” wagons arrived Mountain City Nov 2, 1858.

ANTHONY, John, arrived with “Plattsmouth, Nebraska Company” Oct 24, 1858.

ANTHONY, John H., witness to deed, Nov 14, 1859, Auraria.

**APOLLO Theatre, or Apollo Hall, Denver, erected 1859 on Larimer between E. & F. Streets (14th & 15th) by Charles R. Thorne, actor. Opens with Thorne’s star caste Oct 3. Mme Haydee or Mlle Haydee and sisters gave performances here to crowds of people. There was a grand opening ball at Apollo Hall on Sep 15. Tickets, including supper, were $15. An old invitation is pasted in back of the 1859 file of the RMN and committees are announced thereon. It seems to have been a great event.

APPLEGATE, H. W., name appears as grantor May 20, 1859, (Arapahoe County Land Records). In July he sells lots on McGaa Street between B. & C. (Liber A, p. 132)

ARAPAHOE BAR, this gold camp was situated about two miles east of Golden City site, though Arapahoe was prior to Golden, and included a town in 1859 of from 30 to 50 cabins, all packed with active miners. This was at east base of Table Mountain, and the number of cabins became 100 at the end of the year. The site is now included in the Wannamaker Ranche, it is said, and is on the north side of Clear Creek (then Vasquez Fork) and in 1924 it may be found between the tramway stations of Placer and Bluffs and large piles of rounded boulders and remains of old foundations can be seen, and numerous holes scooped in the face of the bluffs.

It was laid out as a town site in Dec 1858, and among its prominent residents was George W. Jackson from Georgia, Tom Golden, Jim Sanders, and J. H. Gregory, who named the place. It was often called “Arapahoe City” and seemed a rival of Denver. At the end of 1859 it is said to have had 200 voters, and large mining enterprizes; Davidson, Breath and Company operated 25 sluiceheads here Dec 25, 1859, according to Mr. Broad of Golden who wrote a most beautiful tribute to the ancient town. McIntyre, Vance & McFadden, also B. F. Chase and C. W. Fisk, employed forces of men here in sluicing, and two ditches were made, also a bridge, and the place was a road centre. The last postmaster of Arapahoe was Asa Smith, in February 1860; after this time the diggings were abandoned, and the city soon went back to nature. We must not forget that when the Constitutional Convention preliminaries were being arranged two weeks before the arrival of Byers and his RMN, Arapahoe had seven delegates. Their names were, Fisk, Castro (who had most influence), Pollock, Cook, Cochran, and Davidson. The place also later had seven delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Auraria: they were George B. Allen, M. Chilcott, W. L. Crocker, M. Cook, Sam S. Curtis, J. R. Gould and Asa Smith. Only one of these, Cook, had attended the previous meeting in April.

ARAPAHOE COUNTY, Kansas Territory: this was the real name of the gold country now in Colorado, in the years 1858-9. Later in time it regularly became Colorado Territory, but in the meantime a Provisional Government was formed, without authority, by the citizens, for law and order, and Arapahoe County, Kansas was named by them Jefferson Territory, and the name of Arapahoe was used as a county name under the new Territory, and included the district about Denver City much as it was for many years afterwards. There was always some friction between the persons who did not believe in the secession from Kansas, and those who favored it, and nobody seems to know, in any history, how the Territorial taxes of Kansas were ever collected, but when a delegate, who was elected later on under the new Government, went to Washington he was not allowed to take his seat and returned to Denver very much disgusted, it is said. So far as appearances on the ground went, the Territory of Jefferson was very much a fact.

ARAPAHOE DITCH COMPANY, incorporated in Dec 1859 to build ditch from near Golden City along Clear Creek (or Vasquez) to mouth of Ralston Creek. S. B. Allen and C. R. Harris were the leading incorporators.

ARAPAHOE EXPRESS, of 1859, left Arapahoe City for Auraria and Denver, Monday and Saturday of each week, and returned same days. Packages and freights and passengers were carried, and its advertizements appear in the old files.

ARAPAHOE LODGE (Masonic) appears in early issues of the RMN 1859 and its meetings are mentioned as taking place in Cherry Street, Auraria, and Henry Allen was the Worshipful Master. There is uncertainty as to whether this is a separate Lodge which did not flourish long, or whether it was re-named Auraria Lodge when they moved into their fine new quarters in Buddee and Jacobs’ second story.

ARBUCKLE --- this sirname appears in Denver Land Records in this year and probably in part 2 of this work some matters can be shown. (Bromwell Index)

ARBUTHNOT & COMPANY, mentioned in papers of 1859 as mining in placers of Pleasant Valley, and working two men.

ARBUTHNOT, Samuel, born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Aug 17, 1836, arrived gold fields spring of 1859, mined in Gold Hill, Boulder City, Pleasant Valley and Russell Gulch, Gilpin County, later California Gulch, all until 1863, when he went to farming in Left Hand Creek, and took claim in Hay Stack Valley, and in 1880 was President of the Left Hand Ditch Company, organized in 1866. Clerk also of School Board. He married Mar 29, 1870, Miss Mary R., daughter of J. P. Johnson of Left Hand.

ARBUTHNOT, William, arrived 1859. Was born Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Aug 30, 1835; lived first in Iowa, then came to gold fields, mined in Gold Hill in Central City, and Boulder City, returned to Iowa but came back 1864, and in 1869 married, Aug 29, Miss Mary E., daughter of J. G. Bader of Left Hand, Colorado. He was a farmer once in Arkansas Valley.

ARCHIBALD, Albert W., member of Lawrence Party, 1858, and occupied 10th wagon. He was probably related to Mrs. Charles Holmes of this party, whose middle name was Archibald.

ARKANSAS ROUTE to the gold fields at mouth of Cherry Creek was by way of the Arkansas River, entering Auraria from the Divide from Pueblo as it is now called.

ARMOR, J., arrived Aug 17, 1859, lived Denver 1890 when list of pioneers containing his name was printed. Born Ireland Dec 27, 1826. John Armor helped lay out Central City in Kendall Gulch in the year of his arrival, and is possibly same as J. Armor above.

ARMSTRONG?, W. B., of Michigan, arrived Denver City in wagon 5 of E. Doty’s Lightning Express Train of 10 wagons, Apr 22, 1859. In his wagon came D. Boyd, J. F. Makepiece, C. Wallace and M. E. Harrison, J. Smith and H. F. Rodman. (RMN)

ARNETT, Anthony, born on Rhine, in Alsace, near Strasburg, France, Jul 7, 1819. Arrived U.S.A. with parents, 1828, at 9 years. Son of Louis Arnett, whose father was killed in Napoleon’s wars. Lived Warren County, Pennsylvania, and took land, cleared it, built, but in 1835 emigrated to Chicago (one winter). Later preempted land in Illinois, below present site of Dixon, and in 1849 Anthony went to New York and sailed around the Horn to the California gold fields where he bought ranche, naming it “Rock River Ranche”, erected tent and kept pioneer hotel, owned pack train out of Sacramento. He returned by Isthmus Route, and in 1859 arrived at mouth of Cherry Creek, Jun 12. Went first to Golden, bought cattle and freighted. 1860 built hotel in Central City which he kept for a year, then settled in Boulder, owned and kept the Boulder House until 1864, built several wagon roads, and owned valuable property in Boulder. He contributed part of the ground for the State University, and gave five hundred dollars for erection of the main building in 1875. He owned the Brainerd Hotel in Boulder, and mining property in Gold Hill and Ward. His wife was Miss Mary Graham of Rock River, Illinois, and he had four children. (Notes from the Denver Post, Sep 21, 1924, and from several undated newspaper clippings.)

ARNETT, Samuel, arrived and filed claim to ranche land described as follows: Nov 5, 1859 he claims one quarter section land for farming on the road leading from the Auraria Ford over the Platte River to Golden City, and being in a hollow or basin, about four miles from Platte, on each side of the road. (Liber A)

ARNETT, W. D., arrived mouth Cherry Creek, Jun 16, 1859. Born Ohio, Nov 6, 1828, was living 1907 and member Colorado Pioneer’s Association and in 1890 lived in Bear Creek. Was elected member of the first Constitutional Convention in 1859, a delegate from Illinois Central Diggings. He was later elected councilman in the first Legislature in 1859, and is several times mentioned in file of RMN for that year, once when an Express package was advertized for him. The following marriage is in RMN of Feb 5, 1866: William D. Arnett of Colorado and Miss Mary M. Dunn of West Liberty, Ohio, were married Jan 8, 1866 at West Liberty in the Presbyterian Church by Rev. L. I. Drake. The RMN comments as follows “Good for the Judge!” (Wm. D. Arnett, probably same, was in 1896 of Idaho, was previously of Denver and before that of Golden.)

ARNOLD, ---, firm of Murray & Arnold, Nevada Gulch. (RMN list, 1859.)

ARNOLD, Rice, was signed as witness in land deal, Denver City Oct 17, 1859, and was “of Montana County, Kansas.” (This was the first name of Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory, probably named so by the pioneers themselves, as most likely the county was too remote to have such interest taken in changing its name.)

ATHERTON, A. H., arrived from La Porte, Indiana (brother to Wallace.)

ATHERTON, Wallace, accidentally shot at Hill Difficulty, 15 miles from Auraria. He was formerly of Gennesee Forks, Potter County, Pennsylvania (1856), and of Milledgeville, Carroll County, Illinois. (RMN file, 1859)

ATKINS, John B., (also J. B., probably same) was Secretary of Auraria Town Company, also Secretary of the Capital Hydraulic Company, was married Oct 16, 1859 to Miss Lydia B., daughter Col. Henry Allen of Auraria. He is said to have been from Mt. Clemans, Michigan. He is granted four lots in Auraria by the Auraria Town Company Oct 29, of this year: lot 9 block 55, lot 9 block 24, lot 5, block 99 and lot 9 block 56. A month later, on Nov 30, he buys about 12 more lots, among them lot 4 block 1, and lot 3 block 65 (the last lot is next lot 2, block 65 bought by, or donated to Henry Allen, his father-in-law.) Possibly they may have lived here. (Ninth Street now, on west side street, about 132 feet from corner of Curtis (?))

J. B. Atkins was a notary public in Golden City Jan 1860, and certifies to signatures of deed between Abraham Jacobs and Wm. G. Preston.

ATKINS, W. W., (this may not be an arrival of 1859, though it was said when he died Mar 4, 1860 that he had been in the Territory for several months.) He died at Missouri City.

ATKINSON, Mr., statement made at old timers’ meeting: “The first brickyard was started in Sep 1859 near the old mint by Mr. Atkinson, who died about 1899 at Leadville: He was a Fiftyniner.”

ATWELL, John, arrived 1858 was shot, but not killed about Sep 1858, at Cherry Creek, Montana City by Vincent. The latter was required to give Atwell his house, and leave the country by the Lawrence Party.

AUBOCHON?, Francis, mentioned in RMN summer of 1859, as travelling in the mountains and in South Park.

AUBREY, Suez, leading merchant, Denver City and Auraria City, 1859. Mentioned in RMN.

AUDLIM or AUDLEM or AUDLEY, John, buys Denver lots of A. C. McGrew May 14, 1859 and on Dec 26, same year, is grantor of lot in town of Arapahoe (Liber A) and Jan 6, 1860 buys of William P. McCarty his title to lot 9, block 37, Cheyenne St. Auraria.

AUGHE, Joshua, arrived at mouth of Cherry Creek, May 16, 1859 with Capt. Wilson Martin’s party, all of Indiana. (RMN)

AUGUSTUS, Isaac H., of Auraria, has Power of Attorney from William M. Badger of Auraria to collect his rents, etc., Sep 10, 1859. (Liber A) and Dec 6 he is witness to transfer of lots by A. C. Hune, etc. in Auraria.

AUGUSTUS, John H., was made Attorney in Fact to sell Auraria lots Oct 1859.

AULD, ---, (firm of Fenton & Auld, leading merchants, Denver or Auraria). D. Auld, was partner of J. W. Iliff and A. Fenton in the little 1859 Business Directory shown me by Mr. Sopris. They had store on Lawrence Street.


AURARIA, or AURARIA CITY, Denver City’s rival on the west bank of Cherry Creek, was the first regularly constituted post office under the United States Government in the Pike’s Peak gold district, it has been stated in Colorado history. There is an old map of the city, published by Fosdick & Tappan in 1859 in Smiley’s Colorado History, p. 445. Dr. L. G. Russell is said to have named it after his home town in Lumpkin County, Georgia, where gold diggings existed and were still being worked.

The town was surveyed and the Town Company formed in 1858, and a most bitter rivalry existed between it and Denver City on the east bank of Cherry Creek. Auraria, as may be seen, named most of her streets running north and south after the Presidents, while Denver’s Town company named theirs after themselves - a much more selfish and vulgar performance. Auraria rejected the charter uniting her with Denver. The first Masonic Lodge, called Arapahoe Lodge was in Auraria, but must have included a number of Masons from Denver. It can easily be imagined that these members would want to start another Lodge on the other side of the Creek and they did so as soon as they had sufficient numbers. The fact that the name Arapahoe Lodge was dropped and Auraria Lodge established seems to me to indicate that the Masons from Denver tried to land the prize on the other side of the Creek and call it Denver Lodge, which they in fact did do a few years later, calling it Lodge No. 5 (for by this time several other Lodges existed in the mountains).

Fourth Street in Auraria (now Market, or Walnut) was the most valuable ground in the country in 1860, worth $1500 to $2000 a lot near the Creek. The RMN of Feb 8, 1859 has good description of houses in Auraria.

The Auraria Cemetery is mentioned in the Western Mountaineer of same year, but it seems entirely lost and forgotten, even by the oldest pioneers I have seen.

The following is an alphabetized list of Stockholders of Auraria in 1858: (Auraria had 200 inhabitants circa Nov 6, 1858.)



Arrangement and names of the Streets:- Running N.E. to S.W.:

Front Street (next Creek, now 13th St.)
Cherry Street now 12th St.
Ferry Street now 11th St.
San Luis Street now 10th St.
Cheyenne Avenue now 9th St.
Arapahoe Avenue now 8th St.
Washington Avenue now 7th St.
Adams Street now 6th St.
Jefferson Street now 5th St.
Madison Street now 4th St.
Monroe Street now 3rd St.
Quincy Street now 2nd St.
Jackson Street now 1st St.
West of Jackson were:
  • Van Buren Street
  • Harrison Street
  • Polk Street
  • Taylor  Street
  • Platte Avenue
  • Pierce Street
  • Buchanan Street


Crossing these, and running almost northwest to southeast, ending at Creek: These streets were numbered, Larimer Street being Fifth St. and Lawrence St. being then 6th St., Curtis was 7th, and so on.

A search through the oldest directories shows that many of the old names were in use up to 1872, but not later than that date.

AUSTIN, George, certificate filed of ownership of his Denver lots by Denver City Town Company, Aug 23, 1859. (Liber A)

AUSTIN, J. W., arrived in Goldfields, mouth Cherry Creek Jun 14, 1859. Born Massachusetts Jun 4, 1832. Lived in Denver 1890, and in 1907 in Leavenworth. (List Members Colorado Pioneers’ Society 1907)

AUTOBIUS, Hon. Charles, first white man to settle in this region, now called Colorado. He was an intimate friend of Kit Carson and had a wonderful career. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, of French parents, he early entered the employ of the American Fur Company and did scout service all over the country. In Apr 1860, the RMN mentions him as living on a ranche on Huerfano River with large retinue of retainers, Mexican, American and Indian. In this mention his name is spelled Autabee. A long biography of him is in Denver Tribune, Feb 9, 1879. (If cannot find paper in regular files of Tribune, a copy exists in H. Bromwell’s files, Vol. 1, p. 132)

AUX, George, partner with C. J. McDuffee & Company, Mountain City & Gregory Diggings, mentioned in connection with claims on Hyatt Lode (Gregory Record, p. 21.) 1859. The Colorado Pioneers’ Society list of 1890 gives his arrival May, 1859, born Aug 11, 1837. Was living Colorado Springs 1890.

The following occurs in the files of Dec 1861: “Married – George Aux, soldier of the regiment, and Miss Minerva Swena, both of Camp Weld, Dec 22 at Camp Weld, by Rev. Kehler, Chaplain of the Regiment of Colorado Volunteers. (Colorado Republican)

(One of my notes taken without the reference states that George Aux had a log cabin in Mountain City in 1859.)

AVERY, M. A. & Willoughby, carpenters, of Denver and Auraria Cities in 1859 built Blake & Williams’ large building on north side of Blake Street near 15th Street (Denver Hall) and also many other buildings, (Bancroft, Vol 25, p. 373) mentions his building Denver Hall.

AYDELOTTE, Thomas, was a member of Denver City Town Company Feb 23, 1859, and Aug 23 certifies that he owns lots 17-18, block 107, and lot 7, block 95 in Denver City. (Liber A)

AYERS, J., arrived Cherry Creek May 16, 1859, with party of Capt. Wilson Martin, all of Indiana. (List RMN).

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